Monthly summary of precipitation and air temperature data collected daily from standard U.S. climatological service instruments located at USDA Jornada Experimental Range Headquarters.
Soil water content measurements in the form of raw count readings are made at 5 depths at each of 89 (2" O.D. diameter) aluminum access tubes on the Control transect and at every 5th station on the nitrogen fertilized Treatment transect using a neutron probe (Campbell Model 503DR Hydroprobe). Access tubes are installed such that there are 6 inches of tube aboveground. Stations are 30 meters apart. Measurements are taken at 30cm, 60cm, 90cm, 110cm, and 130cm. Neutron probe readings taken in 6 lysimeters along transects are also included. 5 standard readings are taken at beginning and end of each transect, and after every 20 stations. Measurements taken at 2 week intervals from April 1982 to 1987, monthly since.
Soil water content measurements (cm3 H2O / cm3 soil) at 5 depths at each of 89 (2" O.D. diameter) aluminum access tubes on the Control transect and at every 5th station on the nitrogen fertilized Treatment transect using a neutron probe (Campbell Model 503DR Hydroprobe). Access tubes are installed such that there are 6 inches of tube aboveground. Stations are 30 meters apart. Measurements are taken at 30cm, 60cm, 90cm, 110cm, and 130cm. Neutron probe readings taken in 6 lysimeters along transects are also included. 5 standard readings are taken at beginning and end of each transect, and after every 20 stations. Measurements taken at 2 week intervals from April 1982 to 1987, monthly since.
Average percent coverage of each plant species per 5-meter segment along a 30-meter line intercept perpendicular to each of 91 stations on each of the three LTER-I permanent transects. Data consists of week number, transect, station number, species, carbon reduction pathway, habit, form, and average percent cover. It is sorted by transect, station number, then plant species. Measurements are made on 30-meter line intercept transects located perpendicular to each of 91 stations on each of the 2.7 km long Control, Treatment, and Alternate Control Transects established at the beginning of LTER-I. Following January 1, 1987, spring line- intercepts will only record cover of annual species. All perennial cover data will be limited to fall samples. Both annuals and perennials are measured during the fall. Measurements were made biannually from 1982 - 1988. After this they are measured every 5 years. Annuals are measured through 1998; however, after this only perennials are measured and only in the fall. Each plant line transect is divided into 6 5-meter segments. Annuals are measured only in the first meter of segments 1, 2, and 3 and in the last meter of segments 4, 5, and 6. Perennials are measured for the full length of all segments. BACKGROUND. In the spring of 1982, as part of the establishment of the Jornada Long-Term Ecological Research site in southern New Mexico, a 135 ha portion of a 1500 ha, internally drained, watershed was exclosed from grazing by domestic livestock. Prior to exclosure the watershed, as well as the rest of the Jornada basin, had been moderately to heavily grazed for the past 100 years. Concurrent with grazing, the vegetation had undergone a dramatic change from desert grassland, with an almost continuous cover of C4 perennial grasses, to isolated patches of the original grassland in a mosaic with desert shrub dominated plant communities (Buffington and Herbel, 1965). The exclosure lies along a northeast facing piedmont slope at the base of a steep isolated mountain peak, and covers a variety of component landforms from the foot of the mountain to the basin floor. This provided the opportunity to investigate the response of vegetation with respect to landscape characteristics as well as release from grazing.
Termites are important to litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in desert grasslands. The annual feeding activity on paper baits of subterranean termites in desertified (degraded-shrub dominated ecosystems) and relatively undegraded black-grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grasslands was measured over six years on 12 sites on the Jornada Basin. Toilet paper roll termite baits were placed on grids on each consumer plot. Data include initial bait weights and bait weights after baits had been retrieved from the field once each year. Weight loss was calculated as a measure of termite foraging activity. This study is complete.
Termites are important detritivores in Chihuahuan Desert ecosystems and appear to have key roles in plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling and in altering soil structure and hydrologic processes. These data were collected in conjunction with a study using exclosures to test the effects of rodents on vegetation and abiotic factors, established at each of the Sevilleta, Jornada and Mapimi research locations. At the Jornada, the effects of cattle were also measured using an additional exclosure. Three replicate experimental blocks of plots are randomly located at each study site to measure vegetation responses to the exclusion of rodents, and lagomorphs, and cattle. Due to their role in processing of plant matter, data on grasshoppers and termites was also collected at the Jornada. Each study site is 1 km by 0.5 km in area. A grid of 36 sampling points are positioned at 5.8-meter intervals on a systematically located 6 by 6 point grid within each plot. A permanent one-meter by one-meter vegetation measurement quadrat is located at each of the 36 points. A tape measure was used to measure the length, diameter, and height, for each occurrence of a termite casing in units of one centimeter. This study is complete.
Summarizes mean aboveground net primary production, in g/m2/yr, by year for each of 15 sites. Annual totals derived by summing seasonal production values for winter (October - February), spring (February - May), and fall (May - October) increments for a single calendar year.
Please refer to these publications to evaluate the appropriateness of these data for your intended use prior to contacting Debra Peters, Responsible Investigator, with a data request.
Attention: These data are not appropriate for estimates of percentage cover. NPP-associated percent cover measurements were developed for and are used solely to provide the best estimate of biomass production. Becuase the methodology results in measurements of overlapping subcanopy systems and canopies of adjacent individuals, NPP percent cover measurements are not an appropriate measure of actual aerial plant cover. Doing so will result in inflated numbers for the "actual" vegetative cover.
Attention: Data through 2003 was replaced online per below on 9/22/2011. Analyses and results for ANPP differ from previous uses of the data from 1989-1998 (Huenneke et al., 2002) in three ways: (1) Yucca elata was removed prior to analysis because its growth form results in large errors in biomass estimates from year-to-year, (2) regressions between biomass and plant volume used an intercept equal to 0 to be consistent with a recent study in a similar system (Muldavin et al., 2008), and (3) reference harvests obtained in extreme years resulted in adjusted regression coefficents through time that reflect year-to-year variation in ANPP. These changes result in ANPP values that are smaller compared (Peters et al. submitted) with previous studies (Huenneke et al., 2002).
Introduction. Animal consumers have important roles in ecosystems (Chew 1974, 1976), determining plant species composition and structure (Harper 1969, Pacala and Crawley 1992, Crawley 1983, 1989), regulating rates of plant production and nutrient cycling (Naiman 1988, McNaughton et al. 1989, Holland et al. 1992), and altering soil structure and chemistry (Milchunas et al. 1993, Huntly 1991). Desertification of semi-arid grasslands in the Southwest United States by domestic livestock provides an important example of herbivore regulation of ecosystem structure and function (Schlesinger et al. 1990). The species composition and physical structure of these desert grassland ecosystems were significantly altered by alien herbivores about 100 years ago (Bahre 1991, York and Dick-Peddie 1968, Gardner 1951, Hastings and Turner 1980, Buffington and Herbel 1965, Dick-Peddie 1993). To what extent the spatial patterns of semi-arid shrubland and grassland plant production and soil characteristics are currently controlled by plant resource use, abiotic factors, or consumers is not known. Desertification is an ecosystem-level phenomenon occurring on a global scale with great relevance to human welfare (Nelson 1988). In order to understand the processes that contribute to desertification, we must fully understand interactions among the components of arid-land ecosystems. Schlesinger et al. (1990) suggest that in the absence of continued livestock perturbations, plant resource use and abiotic factors appear to be the principal factors accounting for the persistence of desert shrublands in desertified semi-arid grasslands. However, Brown and Heske (1990a) provide evidence that indigenous small mammal consumers may also have a major role in determining vegetation structure in those desert ecosystems. Brown and Heske (1990a, Heske et al. 1993) found that the exclusion of rodents from Chihuahuan Desert creosotebush shrubland areas resulted in a significant increase in grass cover over a 12 year period. Brown and Heske (1990a) concluded that rodents were keystone species in those desert shrub communities, greatly influencing vegetation structure. Rodents are also known to have significant influences on plant species composition and diversity in desert communities (Inouye et al. 1980, Heske et al. 1993, Brown et al. 1986). Several species of granivorous rodents (Family: Heteromidae, genera: Dipodomys, Perognathus, Chaetodipus) appear to have the greatest influence on vegetation herbivory. Soil disturbance through the digging activities of rodents can have profound local effects on plant species composition and vegetation structure in the Chihuahuan Desert (Moroka et al. 1982). Digging activities of desert rodents intermix surface soils with subsurface soils (Abaturov 1972), and increase rainfall infiltration (Soholt 1975). Reported measures of the percentage of desert soil surface areas disturbed by rodent digging activities in desert enviroments range from 10% (Abaturov 1972) to 4.5% (Soholt 1975). Burrowing activities increase local soil nutrient and water status, creating favorable sites for increased plant densities, biomass production, and increased species diversity (Morehead et al. 1989, Mun and Whitford 1990). Rabbits (Lagomorpha: Black-tailed jackrabbits, Lepus californicus, and desert cottontail rabbits, Sylvilagus aduboni) are also important consumers of desert vegetation (Brown 1947, Johnson & Anderson 1984, Steinberger and Whitford 1983, Ernest 1994). Rabbits can have significant effects on plant species composition and structure resulting from selective herbivory (Gibbens et al. 1993, Clark and Wagner 1984, Norris 1950, Zeevalking and Fresco 1977). Gibbens et al. (1993) found that excluding rabbits from Chihuahuan Desert creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) communities over a period of 50 years increased the canopy cover of some grasses, and also increased canopy cover of some shrub species. Small mammal (rodent and rabbit) populations may fluctuate considerably with variation in climate and annual plant production (Brown et al. 1979, Brown & Heske 1990, Brown & Zeng 1989, Whitford 1976, Johnson & Anderson 1984). Reproduction in desert rodents is known to be induced by plant foliage production (Reichman and Van De Graff 1975, Beatley 1969). If small mammals are keystone species affecting plant species composition and structure in desert ecosystems, then the impacts of small mammals on vegetation are probably linked with variation in climate and plant production. A reciprocal plant-herbivore/granivore feedback system may result, where small mammal populations and thus impacts on vegetation, are initially determined by climate influences on plant food resource availability to the small mammals. Thus, the effects of small mammals during dry years will probably be different from the effects during wet years because of different population sizes. If this is so, one should be able to measure differential effects of small mammals on plant communities over series of wet or dry years, such as El Nino and La Nina cycles (Nicholls 1988). Such reciprocal interactions should also occur in relation to long-term (decades) climate change. The effects of any one small mammal species population on the biotic community will be complicated by competitive interactions with other mammal species (Munger & Brown 1981, Brown & Zeng 1989, Brown & Heske 1990), however overall impacts on vegetation and soils by the combined effects of all small mammal species may be closely linked with variation in precipitation and plant production. Depending upon the persistence of plant food resources such as foliage or seeds, lag times in consumer impacts may be expected following periods of precipitation and plant production. In desert ecosystems, widely scattered shrubs produce a patch pattern of fertile islands with high plant biomass production and soil nutrients, surrounded by relatively unproductive barren soil (West and Klemmedson 1978, Crawford and Gosz 1982). Researchers at the Jornada Long-Term Ecological Research site in New Mexico have proposed a desertification model suggesting that perturbations caused by domestic livestock grazing and climate change initiated processes transforming grasslands with relatively homogeneous resource distributions to shrubland environments with relatively heterogenous resource distributions (Schlesinger et al. 1990). This patchy vegetation/resource distribution pattern is stable under present climate regimes, and appears to be maintained by plant resource use and abiotic soil processes (Schlesinger et al. 1990). However, Wagner (1976, page 195) suggested that small mammals were probably maintaining shrubland dominated ecosystems at the Jornada by suppressing grasses through selective herbivory. Research Hypotheses. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the activities of small mammals regulate plant community structure, plant species diversity, and spatial vegetation patterns in Chihuahuan Desert shrublands and grasslands. What role if any do indigenous small mammal consumers have in maintaining desertified landscapes in the Chihuahuan Desert? Additionally, how do the effects of small mammals interact with changing climate to affect vegetation patterns over time? This study will provide long-term experimental tests of the roles of consumers on ecosystem pattern and process across a latitudinal climate gradient. The following questions or hypotheses will be addressed. 1) Do small mammals influence patterns of plant species composition and diversity, vegetation structure, and spatial patterns of vegetation canopy cover and biomass in Chihuahuan Desert shrublands and grasslands? Are small mammals keystone species that determine plant species composition and physiognomy of Chihuahuan Desert communities as Brown and Heske (1990a) and Gibbens et al. (1993) suggest? Do small mammals have a significant role in maintaining the existence of shrub islands and spatial heterogeneity of creosotebush shrub communities? 2) Do small mammals affect the taxonomic composition and spatial pattern of vegetation similarly or differently in grassland communities as compared to shrub communities? How do patterns compare between grassland and shrubland sites, and how do these relatively small scale patterns relate to overall landscape vegetation patterns? 3) Do small mammals interact with short-term (annual) and long-term (decades) climate change to affect temporal changes in vegetation spatial patterns and species composition? Other Consumers. Ants are important consumers in Chihuahuan Desert ecosystems (MacKay 1991), and granivorous ants are known to have competitive interactions with rodents (Brown & Davidson 1977, Brown et al. 1979) for plant seed resources. Termites are important detritivores in Chihuahuan Desert ecosystems (MacKay 1991) and appear to have key roles in plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling (Whitford et al. 1982, Schaefer & Whitford 1981), and in altering soil structure and hydrologic processes (Elkins et al. 1986). Grasshoppers are important herbivores in Chihuahuan Desert ecosystems (Rivera 1986, Wisdom 1991, Richman et al. 1993), with various species specializing on most of the different plant species present in any location (Otte 1976, Joern 1979). Since manipulations of small mammals will probably affect these arthropod consumers, we will monitor these other consumers on the measurement plots to document any changes. Documentation of changes or lack of changes in ant, termite, and grasshopper consumer groups will be needed to interpret the results of small mammal manipulations on vegetation and soils. For example, if removal of rodents results in an increase of seed-harvesting ants, changes or lack of changes in vegetation and soils may be attributed to compensatory granivory from the increase in ants. Small mammals are the consumer group that appears to have the greatest influence on Chihuahuan Desert communities (see literature citations above). Given the known ecological importance of small mammals and the complexity and difficulties that would be associated with manipulating small mammals and arthropods, we have chosen to start with experiments on small mammals first. If these other consumer groups appear to have important interactions with small mammals, we will pursue additional experiments in the future to focus on those interactions, and to elucidate the ecological roles of these arthropod consumers.
This is the reference harvest biomass data of plants near, but outside the grid of permanent NPP quadrats that was harvested for each of 15 sites. Height and cover are recorded in the field. Live biomass is weighed in the lab and all measurements are recorded as reference harvest data. The NPP sites are grids of permanent 1 square meter quadrats established in 15 sites: three sites in each of 5 community zones (grama grassland, creosotebush scrub, tarbush flats, mesquite dunes and playa). Grids consist of 49 quadrats arranged in a square 7 x 7 pattern, with quadrats 10 m apart (P-COLL has 48 quadrats in a 3 x 16 pattern).