Regeneration of black grama (<i>Bouteloua eriopoda </i>Torr. Torr) plants via somatic embryogenesis and the internal colonization of endophytic fungi

TitleRegeneration of black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda Torr. Torr) plants via somatic embryogenesis and the internal colonization of endophytic fungi
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsOsuna P., Barrow J.R.
Conference Name2004 World Congress on In Vitro Biology
Date PublishedMay 2004
Conference LocationSan Francisco, CA
ARIS Log Number163128
Keywordsblack grama
AbstractBlack grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) is an important forage grass in southwestern USA rangelands. Plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis. Surface disinfested seeds were germinated and the embryonic shoots were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium gelled with agar. Callus was induced from apical meristems. Calluses were cultured on MS solid medium with six concentrations of 2,4, D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) or Dicamba (6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) for 6 weeks under light or dark conditions. Somatic embryo induction was greatest on 4.52 um Dicamba, under light, after transferring to an auxin- free medium. Embryo development progressed from globular, torpedo to mature embryos phenotypically identical to those naturally produced in seed that developed into intact plants and were established in soil and grown to maturity. Two fungal species, Aspergillus ustus and Puccinia cacabata consistently associated with native populations were also found to be intimately integrated with meristematic mother cells from germinating seedlings and were associated with cells, tissues and regenerated plants. Fungi form protective biofilms on cells and tissues in culture and on root and leaf surfaces of regenerated and native plants. The ecological role of these endophytes is to protect plant surfaces from hostile external environmental conditions.