Observations on territoriality and aggressive behavior in the western spadefoot toad (<i>Scaphiopus hammondii</i>)

TitleObservations on territoriality and aggressive behavior in the western spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus hammondii)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1967
AuthorsWhitford WG
JournalHerpetologica
Volume23
Pagination318
Date Published1967
Call Number00366
Keywordsamphibian, also SEE <ANURAN>, anuran, Scaphiopus, anuran,behavior, article, articles, behavior, Scaphiopus, behavior,also SEE <FOOD HABITS>, journal, journals, Scaphiopus,behavior
AbstractOn 7 June 1967 I had an opportunity to observe the spacing of calling males and aggressive behavior in the western spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus hammondii, while collecting in a flooded pecan grove in Las Cruces, Dona Ana Co., N. M. Soon after entering the grove where a large number of S. hammondii were calling, it was apparent that the distribution of calling males was not random. The rows of pecan trees formed a natural grid which simplified observations of the distribution of calling males. Three or four males called in an area of approximately 440 square feet circumscribed by pecan trees in the corners. The toads were separated from each other by at least 10 feet.