|Title||Manipulative range improvements: Summary and recommendations|
|Year of Publication||1984|
|Series Title||Natural Resources Council, National Academies of Sciences Report, Developing Strategies for Rangeland Management|
Largely because of past federal policies, grazing practices, and the climate. most western public rangeland is in a degraded condition. Professional opinion remains divided on whether range condition has improved or deteriorated over the last 50 years; however, there is a consensus that vast areas need immediate attention. Some rangeland is dominated by woody vegetation and undesirable species of annual grasses rather than the perennial grasses and forbs preferred for livestock grazing. However, because the woody plants are long lived, manipulation of grazing intensity (or cessation of grazing) alone will not restore the rangeland. To increase livestock production on this rangeland, it may be necessary to manipulate the present vegetation by mechanical, chemical, or biological means.