|Title||Maintaining the balance between summer and winter forage on black grama ranges under yearlong grazing use|
|Year of Publication||1939|
|Document Number||Research Note 81|
|Institution||USDA, Forest Service, Southwest Forest and Range Experimental Range Station|
|Keywords||black grama, Bouteloua eriopoda, forage grass, highly prized, range management, research notes|
Black grama type important in the Southwest. Black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) is one of the most highly prized forage grasses in Arizona, New Mexico, and west Texas. Although it is often the dominant grass on the lower plains, it is rarely found in pure stands over very large areas. Other grasses, mainly sand dropseeds (Sporobnlus spp.), the three-awn grasses (Aristida spp.), and other species of grama, are almost invariably mixed with it. Usually, on undeteriorated black-grama-type range, this mixture is comprised of about 80 to 85 percent black grama and 15 to 0 percent other grasses. Because of differences in their seasons of usability, the relative proportion of black grama and the associated grasses is an important factor to be considered in range management.