Long-term trends in human demography and economy across sites

TitleLong-term trends in human demography and economy across sites
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsPeters DC, Laney C., Lugo AE, Collins S.L., Driscoll CT, Groffman PM, J. Grove M, Knapp A.K, Kratz T.K, Ohman MD
Book TitleLong-Term Trends in Ecological Systems: A Basis for Understanding Responses to Global Change
PublisherNational Technical Information Services
CitySpringfield, Virginia
Accession NumberJRN52671
ARIS Log Number256730
Keywordsatmospheric chemistry, climate change, cross-site comparisons, disturbance, ecological response, ecology, ecosystem, EcoTrends, experimental forests, global change, human demography, human population growth, Long Term Ecological Research (LTER), long-term datasets, precipitation, rangeland, rangeland research stations, surface water chemistry

This chapter shows long-term data and trends in human demography and economy for each site.  It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term data for different variables.  Total population, the percentage of the population living in urban areas, and the density of people in the counties associated with each site are selected.  Four economic variables fore each focal county of a site are also selected: the percentage of the population employed by one of four economic sectors: commercial industries, farming, manufacturing, and service industries.  Two types of graphs are included to show change through time across a range of spatial scale for each variable: maps of continental scale showing either the % change in total population for four time periods (1800 to 1850; 1850 to 1900, 1900 to 1950, 1950 to 2000) or the % of the population that was urban in each of four time periods (1850, 1900, 1950, 2000); and maps and graphs showing site-scale data through time. The settlement of the country occurred from the east coast and then to the west coast by 1900, and then to the interior between 1900 and 1950. Losses of population in the Midwest occurred between 1950 and 2000. Most areas of the country had a high percentage of urban population by 1950. Urbanization continued for most of the country until 2000 with the Northeast, Appalachian Mountains, and northern Wisconsin providing notable exceptions.