Long-Term Ecological Research and Evolving Frameworks of Disturbance Ecology

TitleLong-Term Ecological Research and Evolving Frameworks of Disturbance Ecology
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsGaiser EE, Bell DM, Castorani MCN, Childers DL, Groffman PM, C Jackson R, Kominoski JS, Peters DPC, Pickett STA, Ripplinger J, Zinnert JC
Date Published 29 January 2020
KeywordsDisturbance Ecology, Evolving Frameworks, long-term ecological research

Detecting and understanding disturbance is a challenge in ecology that has grown more critical with global environmental change and the emergence of research on social–ecological systems. We identify three areas of research need: developing a flexible framework that incorporates feedback loops between social and ecological systems, anticipating whether a disturbance will change vulnerability to other environmental drivers, and incorporating changes in system sensitivity to disturbance in the face of global changes in environmental drivers. In the present article, we review how discoveries from the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have influenced theoretical paradigms in disturbance ecology, and we refine a framework for describing social–ecological disturbance that addresses these three challenges. By operationalizing this framework for seven LTER sites spanning distinct biomes, we show how disturbance can maintain or alter ecosystem state, drive spatial patterns at landscape scales, influence social–ecological interactions, and cause divergent outcomes depending on other environmental changes.