How to keep and increase black grama on Southwestern ranges

TitleHow to keep and increase black grama on Southwestern ranges
Publication TypeGovernment Report
Year of Publication1939
AuthorsCampbell R.S., Crafts E.C.
PublisherU.S. Government Printing Office
Keywordsblack grama, Bouteloua eriopoda, forage grass, government publication, semidesert grasslands
AbstractBlack grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), also known locally as woolly-foot or crowfoot grama, is by far the most important forage grass on the 89 million acres of semidesert grasslands in Arizona, New Mexico, southwestern Texas, and southern Utah. Although not as common now as in early clays, black grama can be maintained on the range and even brought back by management based on careful consideration of its forage and soil-protection values, its methods of spreading, and its ability to stand up under drought and grazing. As a prime indicator of range utilization, black grama ranks second only to blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) over the entire Southwest. The two sometimes occur together in mixed stands, but blue grama typically grows in pinon-juniper woodlands and on the heavier soils of the shortgrass plains, whereas black grama is found on the better-drained soils in the shortgrass country and the warmer and lower semidesert grasslands. Black grama may be easily distinguished from other gramas by its widely creeping runners or stolons which root at the joints and send up new shoots that later become separate plants.