Guidelines for Preparing Proceedings Papers

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17th Wildland Shrub Symposium

Deadline for submission:  November 30, 2012

Who may submit: Presenters of oral or poster presentations may consolidate their presentation into a manuscript and submit it for consideration in the published proceedings.

Manuscript length: Manuscripts may not exceed 5000 words in length, including abstract and references.

How to submit: Send completed manuscript by email to Rosemary Pendleton, PhD (, US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, 333 Broadway SE, Suite 115, Albuquerque, NM 87102-3497  Phone: 505-724-3673



The top of each paper and the heading levels following it should be formatted like this:

Chiricahua Leopard Frog Status in the Galiuro Mountains, Arizona, With a Monitoring Framework for the Species’ Entire Range

Lawrence L. C. Jones, Wildlife Program, USDA Forest Service, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, AZ; and Michael J. Sredl, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ

[note: address, phone, email should be listed at the end of the proceedings, not here]

Abstract--The Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) was historically …

FIRST-LEVEL HEADING (flush left, all caps, bold)

Second-Level Heading (flush left, initial caps, bold)

Third-level heading (flush left, first word cap, italics)

*Recommended: Use “Styles and Formatting” facility in Word for efficiency.



  1. Each paper should contain a separate Word file for each of the following elements in this order: Text, References, Appendices, Tables, Footnotes, and Figure Captions.
  2. Text should be in Microsoft Word, 12 point, single-spaced. Text should be flush left with ragged right margin. Pages should be numbered. Use only one space after periods.
  3. Make sure each table and figure is referred to in text and matches the reference.
  4. Run the grammar and spell-check.
  5. Tables: Tabs or the Table facility should be used to separate columns. Table captions go above the tables, figure captions go below the figures.
  6. Figures: Please refer to the Figure Guidelines below.
  7. Authors are responsible for accuracy. Editors may not have time to correct style minutia.



Follow a consistent file-naming convention: Label each computer folder with the last name of the primary author. Label the text file within the folder “Smith.doc,” the figures as “Smith F1.TIF,” the tables as “Smith T1.doc,” and so on. If needed, print out a fresh hardcopy and place in a physical file folder. Organize physical file folders to correspond to the order of the Table of Contents.



Microsoft Word and Excel are okay. Use tabs or the table function, rather than spaces, to separate columns. Number tables consecutively and refer to each in the text. Put the table caption above the table. Begin each table caption like this: “Table 1--Table captions should be boldface.” Table footnotes should start with the superscript “a” and should appear below the table. Example:



Photographs and illustrations (charts, maps, drawings) are called “figures.” Refer to each in the text and number them. Put figure captions on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. Begin each figure caption like this: “Figure 1--Figure captions should be boldface.” Avoid putting footnotes in a figure; include the information in the caption.

The use of color will be limited to complex illustrations and photo identification purposes.

  1. Figures should be in their own individual computer files in TIF or JPG format.
  2. Do NOT embed figures within Word files. Native JPG, TIF, and EPS only.
  3. Do NOT submit PowerPoint files for print reproduction. You may submit photos in PowerPoint to show us how you want the photos to be arranged or labeled. But we need the native files, i.e., the original photos in the format in which they were captured (TIF, JPG). This does not include photos converted from PPT to JPG.
  4. When you finalize a photo or drawing, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats. Note the resolution requirements:
  • Vector drawings: EPS. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics.”
  • Photographs/graphics: TIFF. Use a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • Bitmapped line drawings: TIFF. Scan line art at a minimum of 600 dpi.

Photos: High-resolution TIFF photos (preferably 300 pixels per inch) are the best, although we will use JPGs. Keep in mind that saving a file at a higher resolution does not make it any better. Photo quality is determined by how the photo was captured originally: quality of equipment, pixel setting, and photographer skill. We also accept original slides and prints because these have higher resolution capability for print reproduction than digital photos. Scan in color photos at a resolution of 300 dpi as TIF files into PhotoShop. Publishing Services will then scale and add any labels during layout.

How to assess photos for print: Open the file. Click “Image” and then “Image Size” (in PhotoShop) or “File” and then “Properties” (in Microsoft Photo Editor). The Resolution box should read 300 ppi (pixels per inch) at a minimum, and the Size box should contain the dimensions of 5x7 inches at a minimum. If either of these numbers is smaller, your photo will not reproduce well in print because there simply are not enough pixels per inch to give a sharp image. The photo might look fine on the computer screen, but that’s because computer screens are not capable of exhibiting more than 72 dpi.

Typing a higher pixel count into the Resolution box will not improve the image. Reducing the dimensions in the Size box will result in a higher concentration of pixels, making the image appear sharper.

To learn how to capture better photos, refer to our Photography Guidelines (under our Author’s Corner web site at

PowerPoint Files: Do not submit PowerPoint photos! They are appropriate for the Web and electronic projection, but not for print reproduction. PowerPoint photos do not contain the resolution necessary for commercial printing. You may use them to show us a mockup, but please include the images in their native format (TIF, JPG) as well. If the native files are no longer available, we can create a PDF from the PPT file and then extract each image individually using PhotoShop. The PDF does not increase resolution but allows us to better capture the content of the PPT file.

Maps: Create maps in black and white if possible. If sufficient detail cannot be shown in black and white they can be run in color. Maps should show scale, north-arrow direction, location of plots, and geographic locations. Format or export GIS figures as encapsulated postscript files (.EPS) or computer graphics metafiles (.CGM). ArcView is capable of this. Color separations for the sharpest reproduction quality are generated directly from the computer files. Submit hard-copy maps for layout placement.

Illustrations: We accept .GIF, .CDR, .JPG, and .EPS files. We will not use illustrations embedded in PowerPoint. If you submit a figure in electronic format, then include a sharp hard copy too in case we cannot readily convert your computer file. Illustration labels should be in a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, in upper and lower case letters (do not use all caps). If possible, scale individual illustrations to fit a 3.5-inch column or a 7-inch maximum page width. Make sure the lines and labels are large enough to be legible after illustrations are reduced to fit the column or page width. Indicate the figure number on the page, preferably in the lower right corner.

Multiple shades of gray do not print well. Use patterns to define areas in graphics and maps. Do not use background shades or an outside border.



If you’re borrowing photos from a non-government cooperator or private source, you must obtain written permission. Don’t assume that photos you pull off the web are in the public domain. See our Copyright FAQ page at If you want to reprint figures that you borrow from copyrighted publications, obtain permission from the publisher first and include documentation of permission with your manuscript. To request permission, use the form “Request for Permission to Reprint”available at

Obtain written permission to publish photos of non-government people. Don’t photograph people with “advertisements” on their clothes; this may be construed as endorsement.



Rules for abbreviations, punctuation, numerals, compounding of words, and other matters of style mechanics are in the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (2001).

Units of Measure—You may use English or metric units, but be consistent throughout the manuscript. Equivalents are not required but are helpful to many readers. In text, put the equivalents in parentheses immediately after the units. For example: A sheet of ½ inch (1.27-cm) plywood was fitted. Or: The study area size was 3 ha (7.4 acres).

Numbers from zero through nine are spelled out unless they accompany a unit of measure. The numerical form is always used for dates, expressions of time, page numbers, decimal quantities, numerical designations, or dial positions; when expressing a ratio; and for numbers 10 and higher (except at the beginning of a sentence).

Examples of GPO style changes we have made routinely are:

1-10 to 1 to 10   sq. ft to ft2
% to percent   meters to m
Figure to figure   i.e. to in other words,
Table to table   e.g. to for example
1900’s to 1900s   et al. to and others
in., ft. to inch, ft        



In text, use the author-date method when citing a reference. For example, “More rapid runoff may result in increased peak flows (Brown 1980). Later experiments by Miller (1980) showed . . . .” If several references are listed as support for a statement, list the names alphabetically, separating each with a semicolon: Adams 1980; Endres 1972; Peterson 1974.

The reference list (or Literature Cited list) should list each reference with a space between it, no indents. Make sure that the style is consistent (ANSI is preferred but not necessary; examples are given below) and that there is enough information within each reference to enable the reader to find it through a library.

Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should be done as follows:

Personal Communication

In text: (Schuster, personal communication).

In Reference section: Schuster, Ervin G. 1996. [Letter to D. Louise Kingsbury]. June 10. 2 leaves. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4802 files.

Verbal Communication

Show location and affiliation of person being cited.

In Reference section: Ferguson, Dennis E. 1996. [Personal communication]. February 15. Moscow, ID: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory.

Unpublished Paper/Data

In text: (Logan, unpublished paper) or (Feast and Garton, unpublished data).

In Reference section: Logan, Jesse. 1996. Problem analysis: mountain pine beetle resistance in Northern Rocky Mountain stands. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Logan, UT. 32 p.

Personal Observation

In text: (Lynn Ryder, personal observation of landmarks along the Overland Tail, September, 1996).

The Forest Service uses the American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z39.29-1977) style for citing bibliographic references. Following are examples:

Gutierrez, Ralph J.; Carey, Andrew B., tech eds. 1985. Ecology and management of the spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest. Proceedings of a symposium; 1984 June 19-23; Arcata, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-185. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 119 p.

Strunk, William J.; White, E.B. 1971. The elements of style. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan. 78 p.

Uresk, Daniel W. 1990. Using multivariate techniques to quantitatively estimate ecological stages in a mixed grass prairie. Journal of Range Management. 43(4): 282-285.

Van Haverbeke, David F. 1986. Genetic variation in ponderosa pine: a 15-year test of provenances in the Great Plains. Res. Pap. RM-265. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p.

For electronic publications, add the medium such as CD-ROM or Online after the year of publication. At the end, tell where the source is available and the access date:

Bosselman, F. 1994. Four land ethics: order, reform, responsibility, opportunity. Environmental Law. [Online]. 24 (1): 12 p. Available: Mead Lexis/LAWREV/ENVLAW [June 12, 1995].

Sternberg, M.L.A. 1994. The American sign language dictionary. [CD-ROM]. Available: HarperCollins [May 27, 1995].